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DIME Working Papers series on Intellectual Property Rights 46 - 50

WP46: What is critical to success in the movie industry? A study on key success factors in the Italian motion picture industry

Paolo Boccardelli, Luiss Guido Carli University
Federica Brunetta, Catholic University of Rome Sacro Cuore and Luiss Guido Carli University
Francesca Vicentini, University of Bologna and LuissGuido Carli University

Heterogeneity in firm performance has been investigated with different perspectives. Starting from the original contribution of Industrial Organization Economics, since the second half of ‘80s, scholars have pointed out an increasing role of firm-specific factors.

Amongst them, the role of human capital and knowledge-based resources are gaining increased attention. Accordingly, this is emphasized in creative industries where the relevance of intangible and experiential factors is one of the key issues to investigate competitive landscapes.

This paper investigates key successful factors in the Italian motion picture industry, with a major focus on human and relational capital as a driver of competitive advantage.

So far in the creative industries this concept assumes a particular relevance, taking into consideration that the know-how is often spread in social networks of professionals belonging to different communities of artists. Therefore, the capability of quickly reconfiguring these competences into specific projects is a critical issue (Lampel and Shamsie, 2000 and 2003). Moreover, intangible assets play an important role within these industries. Based on a research on more than one thousand movie projects produced in the Italian cluster, this paper tries to address the role of intangible factors in the motion picture industry.

WP47: Enterprise by ‘industrial’ design: creativity and competitiveness in the Birmingham (UK) Jewellery Quarter

John R. Bryson, University of Birmingham
Michael Taylor, University of Birmingham

This paper explores the manufacture of jewellery in Birmingham’s established jewellery quarter. The focus is on identifying and exploring the factors that lie behind the continued existence of this industry in Birmingham. Central to the survival of the industry has been the development of product-based competitive advantage constructed around creativity, customization, design and place-based reputations. Surviving jewellery firms have moved away from competing on price towards non-price based competition. This has meant that they have withdrawn from designing jewellery for mass production and, instead, are concentrating on high value added customised jewellery. This has important implications for intellectual property rights (IPR) in this industry as expensive customised designs do not require IPR protection. There are, however, longstanding IPR issues that still need to be addressed. Traditionally, jewellery was designed and manufactured in Birmingham but finished and assayed in London. This worked against the Birmingham jewellers as the London retailers purloined the design reputations of the Birmingham firms, and German manufacturers purloined their designs. This unequal relationship continues to occur. It provides Birmingham jewellers with a short-term advantage, but a persistent long-term disadvantage – they do not build place-based reputational capacity. The context for this paper is a concern with developing new accounts and theories that explain the role manufacturing contributes to the economies of the member states of the European Union. The focus is on the creative knowledges that manufacturing firms draw upon to ensure that they are able to compete by designing and manufacturing products in high cost locations. The paper is based on twenty-five five-to-face interviews with jewellery firms that have been undertaken over the last 12 months.

WP48: Digital Technologies and the conundrum of copyright and choreography

Tatjana Byrne, Birkbeck University of London
Soo Hee Lee, Birkbeck University of London

In the field of modern dance digital technology plays a significant role in the creative process. Increasingly it is being used to merge various art forms to enable the creation of new modes of expression. As digital dance becomes ever more interactive and collaborative traditional methods of recording and according authorship rights appear slow and costly. Policy vacuums and public funding pressures have left the sector vulnerable to commercial forces that whilst welcoming digital technology as part of the creative process also seek to gain advantage from the benefits it can bring in lowering the incremental costs of distribution. This brings an increased distance and anonymity between performer and audience that is intensified by the displacement not only of body, but also of experience. It is in this context that we explore the role

WP49: User-led innovation and the video game industry

Yuko Aoyama, Clark university
Hiro Izushi, Aston business school(UK)

In spite of the recent acknowledgements of “open source development” type of user-led innovation, our understanding is still limited as to its applicability and benefit. Particularly, from the viewpoint of firms making consumer goods, it remains unclear whether they can take advantage of peer-to-peer interaction and collaboration among consumers in the Internet era. Through an analysis of the video game industry, this article highlights its potential and limitations. The current hype of user-led innovation entails the risk of the concept’s being over-applied in terms of its applicability across industries and assumption of benefits. We argue that user-led innovation emerged out of not only technology-specific environment, but also culturally-specific context of industries. Our analysis shows that user-led innovation in its applications is likely to be constrained by the cultural context among other obstacles, thereby limiting its usefulness to a set of industries with particular characteristics.

WP50: Creativity in Second Life: the virtual world as a site of experimentation for fashion start-ups

Sofia Gkiousou, Birkbeck University of London

In this paper we propose that Second Life (SL) might be an ideal plateau for novice fashion designers to experiment in their milieu and gains skills in design and a variety of other fashion related activities such as marketing and customer identification. First, we address issues of demographics, social interaction and emotional involvement in SL. Second, we compare and contrast the fashion industry with the SL fashion industry in an effort to inform future research about the particularities of the SL market. Our analysis suggests that SL demographics and identity of residents may not be indicative of SL consumption and that SL fashion departs significantly from real life fashion in terms of fashion cycles, products and the characteristics of a fashion designer’s occupation.

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